It is worth noting that only those commodities that are shipped over international borders are recorded in trade statistics as “exports.” Thus, while Arizona’s 4 C’s are finding markets throughout the United States, only those that are shipped to foreign countries are counted as exports.

A dramatic rise of copper ore to its dominant position among Arizona’s exports of 4 C’s started around 2005 and since 2011 replaced cotton as the top C export. Exports of cattle and citrus have remained relatively low in both dollar terms and as percentage shares of C’s total. (Figure 1) The rise in copper ore exports is the main reason for the total exports of Arizona’s 4 C’s increase from $316.4 million in 2010 to $1.8 billion in 2019. [1]